Water Supply Lines and Residential Plumbing

Water Supply Lines

Water supply lines are located throughout any home plumbing system; in fact, you probably already noticed that under the sink or toilet tank a small pipe connected between the faucets or tank and the water shut-off valve.

It is important that one knows as much as possible about water supply lines because it is one of the easiest plumbing repairs around the house.

Even though supply lines leakages are considered an easy fix problem, the reality is that most people fail to properly diagnose water leakage in their home.

Most leak problems involving supply lines are small and steady leaks, which mean that goes unnoticed for months or even years and when someone notices the problem; there will be mold and bad smell present in the areas around the supply lines.

My goal in this page is to educate and promote awareness about water supply lines, how to diagnose a leak and how to fix it yourself.

Determining if the leak is in the supplies?

  1. The most common sign of leakage is the presence of mold under the water supply lines and around the areas where water is leaking from.
  2. Check the supplies for water rust and hardness buildup between the fittings and the supplies.
  3. If mold or hardness is present, you will probably notice water running or dripping even if it is slowly along the supplies, this means that the supplies need to be replaced. P.s: Carefully check the source of the leak before replacing anything. Water leaks are very misleading and, you don’t want to waste time and money fixing the wrong fixture.  The best way to check for leakage is to have a flashlight and a mirror handy; this will allow you to diagnose the area with more precision and clarity.

Before replacing a supply line:

Before replacing the supplies, one must understand that are different types of supply lines available in the market.

Water supply lines for faucets and toilets are available on a variety of materials but, the following are the most common materials: plastic, chrome and metal.

Before buying the water lines, determine if the supplies will be used for faucets, tub, or toilet, also, learn about the length and the size needed.

Why do you need to know that?

Water supply lines for toilets are different from the supply lines used for faucets. The supplies will differ in length, diameter and head size.

Toilet Supply Line:

The toilet supply lines are shorter than the faucet supplies. A toilet supply is shorter and has a bigger head in the end to proper fit in the fluid master bottom pipe connection, which is bigger in diameter than the faucet piper connection.

Faucet Supplies:

The faucet supplies are in most cases twice as longer as the toilet supply. In most cases, the plastic and chrome supplies will have the same diameter; however, the head of the faucet supplies will be smaller than the toilet one.

Tools needed to replace supplies:

You don’t need to use leather gloves, however, latex gloves are advised to have with you, also, you will need a razor blade, different sizes of channel locks, and 7/16 crescent wrench, thread sealing tape, supply lines, new ring gaskets.

Replacing supplies:

This is probably one of the easiest of all plumbing jobs that you will ever do in your home, as long as you follow the below instructions.

  1. Shut off the water at the angle stop valve (s), if there isn’t an angle stop valve by the fixture, then you might have to shut the water off for the whole house at the main valve inside or outside the house in the meter.
  2. Drain all the water from the local pipe, as much as possible by flushing the toilet, running the tube, running the sink etc.
  3. With the proper tool, lose the nuts and unscrew the supply (supplies) on both ends, remove the supply (supplies), make sure to have a small container and rags to dry out the rest of the water.
  4. If you bought plastic supplies, take the proper measurement from the old supply (supplies) and with the razor blade cut the new supply (supplies) on the needed length.
  5. Wrap the threads in the angle stop valve three or four times and, after the nuts and gasket rings being through the supply (supplies), insert the supply inside the valve fitting and then, manually tight it on both sides, because to not cross thread the nuts, you don’t want to damage them, once you have threaded all the way, use the crescent wrench to finish tightening the nuts.
  6. Turn the water back on and check for leaks, if there are no leaks, you have accomplished the task successfully. This whole process should take about 15 to 30 minutes.

How Do Air Conditioners Work?

Air Conditioning Units

Air-conditioning has been used in many factories but people did not really know about this invention until the 1920s when hundreds of department stores, movie theaters, and restaurants installed these devices.

People simply came to these places to get relief from the hot and muggy air outside.  Central air-conditioning systems were developed in the 1930s and after World War II, hundreds of small units sold quickly and were often used in many private homes.

Contrary to popular belief, an air-conditioning unit does not add coolness to the air.  In fact, the opposite is true.  It removes heat.

How Air-conditioning Works?

An air conditioner works on the same principle as a refrigerator, but it is different in a sense that it is not designed to produce extremely low temperatures.  The surrounding heat is taken from the air by the rapid expansion of a cooling substance (called a refrigerant) as it turns from a liquid at high pressure to a gas at low pressure.


A small air conditioner built for home functions this way: first, we have coils and pipes containing refrigerant gas which flows outward.  This refrigerant enters the compressor pump as a warm, low-pressure gas and leaves as hot, high-pressure gas.  Next, the outdoor air takes up heat from the refrigerant in the condenser coil.  In this coil, the compressed refrigerant gas uses heat from the outside air and becomes a warm liquid.  The warmed refrigerant passes through tiny openings of the valves, expands and turns partly into a gas at low temperature.  When it reaches the evaporator coil, the newly-cooled refrigerant takes up the heat from the indoor air.  The indoor air gives up

The warmed refrigerant passes through tiny openings of the valves, expands and turns partly into a gas at low temperature.  When it reaches the evaporator coil, the newly-cooled refrigerant takes up the heat from the indoor air.  The indoor air gives up heat to the refrigerant in the cooling coil and also loses moisture as it is chilled.  The moisture then condenses on the coil and trickles down to the outside drain hole.

Office Buildings

In large installations, such as in office buildings and schools where there is central air-conditioning, a machine chills water that is distributed to a series of coils.  The air from the building is drawn over of those coils and is then circulated to every room by blowers.  The air travels through filters to coolers to the ducts and into the rooms.  After circulating, the cool filtered air comes out of vents in the ceilings and returns to the air conditioner through the openings near the floors.

To be practical, today’s modern air-conditioning units have been designed to maintain a steady temperature, otherwise, we would have to turn the unit off and on continually as the temperature rose or fell.  This self-adjusting feature is made possible by a temperature regulating device built into the unit called a thermostat.  The thermostat is set at the desired temperature when the air-conditioning unit is turned on and then switches the cooling unit on and off when needed.


So yeah, that’s how it works

Scientists predict that the air-conditioning systems of the future will work with what is known as thermoelectricity.  A thermoelectric unit is extremely small and very quiet.  It is made up of tiny pairs of semiconductors that are connected in parallel to an electric current.  These pairs produce cooling and heating effects on opposite ends at the same time when a direct current flows through them.  This is called the Peltier effect.  If the current is reversed, the cooling and heating functions are also reversed.  Thermoelectricity will be able to cool and heat your entire house very cheaply in the future.



Why is There Moisture in the Air Conditioner?

This question is a very common question in the Dallas Air Conditioning business.  The term air conditioning is used instead of the term air cooling because the air conditioning system does two things:  first, it cools the air and then second, removes the moisture from the air.

AC MoistureHave you ever experienced a warm, muggy, sticky day in Dallas?  It can be miserable because the air is holding a lot of water or moisture.

This condition is called humidity.  Early cooling systems did not account for the moisture in the air and thus did not do as good a job as for today’s air conditioners.

Air conditioner Vs Humidity

In Texas today, the modern air conditioner has an evaporator coil inside your house that blows air over the ice cold coils and cools your air.  When the air hits the ice cold coils, any moisture in the air attaches to the condensate coils and then runs down the surface to a collector pan.  The pan has a PVC pipe connected to it and runs the water outside or into your sewer system.

If you have ever had an ice cold drink served to you outside on a humid day you know what I am talking about.  You see, the moisture quickly forms on the outside of the glass and runs down to the napkin.  You can substitute the coil for your glass and the pan for your napkin and you have the exact same thing.  Without removing the water from the air inside your home, mold can grow, wallpaper can peel and you will sweat a lot more.  That’s a big bummer!

Units manufactured by Trane, Ruud, Lennox, Bryant, Carrier or Rheem all operate on the same principle.  Our trained technicians at Dallas Heating and Air Conditioning know how to handle problems with leaking or dripping air conditioning units in all Dallas area.

Gas Water Heater Vs. Electric Water Heater

You have an old gas water heater and it is time to replace it with a new one but, you don’t know whether to replace for another gas or an electric one, do you? What to do before you make such a decision?

Why compare one vs. another?

water heater boxIn today’s world, people are frequently talking about saving energy, especially at home. And when referring to home energy savings, people will remember the basics such as turning the lights off when not in use and buying appliances that promote the highest energy efficiency level.

Although these two steps are good, it usually is as far as we all go in attempting to save energy. One of the most important energy saving equipment found inside every home is the water heater. The boiler is overlooked by most homeowners almost 90% of the time.

In fact, not only gas water heater but electric ones are responsible for about 25% of home energy consumption, so, why not think about saving energy with the water heater?

This article will concentrate about the pros and cons of a gas water heater Vs an electric one, what you should know about each one of them before making your decision.

Gas Water Heater:

Most gas water heaters that are available in today’s market runs out of natural gas, however, if you live in the country, it is most likely that your water heater is an electric or a propane gas one.

gas water heaterGas water heater is considered one of the most energy-efficient available in the market today, especially, if compared with an electric one.

Gas heaters are more efficient to heat the water due to the burner power in the bottom of the tank.

Most gas water heaters run at 80% to 90% efficiency, which means, no matter what is done with the installation and ventilation, the electric heater will lose about 10% to 20% of energy. Gas heaters are much better for a large family, due to their quick recovery rate.

The average fuel cost for gas water heater per therm is $0.50 or $136 per year, if it is $0.60 per therm, that the yearly cost would be $163, if the price per therm $0.70, the yearly cost then would be $190.

Electric Water Heater:

electric water heaterElectric water heaters run at 220v which means that if the home is not upgraded with the proper electric wire and power box, this means that the homeowner will have to make an investment to upgrade the home electricity, which might cost several hundreds of dollars or, even over a thousand.

Electric water heaters need electric wires rated to run the water heater. It also needs to be properly venting the carbon monoxide from inside the home to the outside. Electric heaters run usually at 100% efficiency, but, the tank doesn’t keep hot water for too long and, the recovery rate is usually slower than the gas heaters. Especially, there’re more than 4 people in the house.

If a family of 5 or more people, the electric water heater is not a good option. The average cost of electricity of an electric water heater is $0.08 per kilowatt-hour, so the yearly cost would be $390, if the price per kilowatt-hour is $0.10 then, the yearly cost will be $488 but, if the price per kilowatt- hour is $0.12, the yearly cost will be $585.

Natural Gas Price

Per Therm Yearly Cost




Propane Price

Per Gallon Yearly Cost




Electricity Price

Kilowatt-hour Yearly Cost





When comparing a gas to an electric water heater, it is evident that a natural gas water heater will be the best option to have in the home; however, such a choice will only make sense, if the home already has the proper electrical or gas connections ready for it.

So, the best way to go is to first check the home to see what kind of installation that is already there, there, consult the Dallas water heater professionals, a certified electrician and a certified plumber in gas to provide you with a bid for either of the necessary upgrade, then, see what makes sense to you.

Also, visualize your saving not only in the present time but, at as well as, on the long run and, with the one that will save you money the most and will provide the most benefit.

Disclaims: Remember, this is an informational page only, you are responsible for your decisions, and this site is in no way responsible for your decision.


Unclog Your Drain & Clean Your Dishwasher

How to Unclog Your Sink

How to Unclog Your Drain without Chemicals?
It might be the fact that your bath tub or sink is draining slowly. Perhaps you’re one individual who likes to make use of harsh chemical cleaners for fixing your toilet and kitchen clogs. Although this can solve your problems temporarily, it will be prudent to avoid using chemical substances because they can cause more harm than good.

There is a possibility for your eyes and skin to get damaged not to mention the surroundings. Below we have mentioned a couple of effective ways that will help to unclog your drains without using any chemical substances whatsoever.

1. Dish Soap and Hot Water
A successful way to unclog the kitchen drain will be to use hot water and dish soap. In fact, this method is going to be very effective in case the clog is caused because of grease. Adequate quantity of soap has to be squirted down the blocked drain and you also need to pour some boiling water. This method should be effective in fixing any greasy clogs in the drain. However, this process ought to be implemented at least once every week.
2. Vinegar and Baking Soda
While vinegar happens to be an acid, baking soda is actually a base. A chemical reaction is going to take place when these two ingredients are mixed together which will be able to eat through the clogs.

Follow the subsequent steps for unclogging your drain:

This process is definitely not at all difficult. If you do not get the desired results on the first occasion, try to repeat the process for a second time which should solve your problems successfully.
a. Make sure to get rid of any debris from the opening of the drain.
b. 1 cup of dry baking soda must be poured down the drain.
c. Next, pour half cup of vinegar and use a rag to cover immediately.
d. Leave it like that for half an hour and make some boiling water at the same time.
e. After removing the plug, pour the warm water slowly down the drain.

How Do I Clean a Dishwasher?
Every dishwasher has got a filter at its bottom which often traps the food particles and we also often ignore the rubber seals as well as the flatware basket not to mention the front door panel. It is imperative to clean these on a regular basis so that your dishwasher does not emit any filthy smell and also functions properly. 

Here we will mention some surefire ways that will help to clean your dishwasher successfully:
1. The filters need to be cleaned after every single use. Make it a point to clean the spray arms using washing-up liquid and then water has to be run through the inlet of every single spray arm so that the holes do not get clogged by food particles.
2. For eliminating any filthy odor emitting from the dishwasher, prior to running a load make sure to sprinkle 2 teaspoons of bicarbonate of soda at the base of the device.
3. Also, you will be able to avoid any buildup of soap scum and lime scale by running some white vinegar occasionally through the device.
Otherwise, you may also make use of a top priority dishwasher cleaner.

How to Prevent Lime Scale in Your Plumbing Fixtures

Remove Limescale

Lime scale is a white chalky deposit or stain, which is usually formed on the plumbing system by a combination of soap residues and hard water. Often it is easy to identify them as they leave ugly stains on faucets, taps, sinks, washing machines, boilers, kettles, tubs, central heating systems and so on. These stains usually become harder to clean and remove if they are allowed to form without addressing the problem in time.

It is cheaper, much easier and less time consuming to prevent lime scale build up in your plumbing fixtures rather going through the descaling and removing process. This article is going to look at methods on how to prevent lime scale in your plumbing fixtures. 

1. Use Water Softener 

A water softener is a great way to prevent lime scale build up in your plumbing fixtures. This substance is available in forms of powder, gel, and tablets. You can use it along with your daily cleaning detergents or soaps as you carry on with your routine chores around the house. Water softeners usually work by bonding with the minerals found in water dissolving them before they cause harm or damage to your plumbing fixtures and other appliances.

2. Water Filter 

A water filter is another essential way that you can use to remove unwanted minerals that are found in hard water. Filters are like cartridges and they come in similar form, which can be replaced or changed from time to time according to the expiry date of the specific piece you get. Water filters can be installed on faucets and taps to filter out the magnesium and calcium concentrates high content from water, which are the main culprits for the lime scale formation. 

3. Magnetic Water Conditioner and Descaler System

A descaler system and a magnetic water conditioner is another method that prevents the formation of lime scale traces on plumbing fixtures in the entire water system. This method operates through a system that is installed and attached to the main water supplying pipe of the entire household. This method starts to work immediately after it is successfully installed saving you the costs of repairs and appliances replacement. The descaler and conditioner system works through magnetizing the water together keeping them in suspension to prevent accumulation on pipe walls and other related surfaces. The magnetic field built by this method also cleans the existing lime scale traces or stains in the water system and softens it. 

4. Vinegar and Lemon Juice

Another preventive measure that you can use to prevent lime scale formation is to use a mixture of vinegar and lemon juice solution in your appliances. You can flush appliances such as coffee machines, kettles, espresso machines and so on from time to time to combat any kind of lime scale build up. 

To wrap up the loose ends, it is worth to mention that repairing plumbing fixtures and replacing home appliances can be an expensive affair, so it is necessary to take into account the precautionary measures to avoid them. Ensure you close check your water pipes, appliances and other vulnerable surfaces for any lime scale deposits build up, to prevent further plumbing complications down the line.

How To Change A Garbage Disposal

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Every home owner who has a garbage disposal will probably have to replace it at some time. It will save you money and other hassles replacing your garbage disposal if you do it yourself. This is because in most cases hiring a plumber to replace a garbage disposal is inconvenient and expensive. You find that replacing a garbage disposal is quite simple and you only need the common tools to do it. More so, this gives you a chance to shine and save money that you could have paid for those services. This piece is going to give tips and other important insights on how to replace a garbage disposal.

How to Replace a Garbage Disposal?

The first thing when you want to replace your garbage disposal is check and see the model, make as well as the horsepower of the existing garbage disposal. You can get this information on the data plate of your disposal. It is important because these details will come in handy while getting a new garbage disposal. If you can get the same model, make and with similar horsepower, everything will line up easily. If the unit you are looking for is no longer available, then your local home improvement dealer will probably suggest another substitute for you or you can go online and do your research to get this information as well. 

Secondly, remove everything that is under the sink of your garbage disposal to give you room to work. More so, this will allow to check and see how the plumbing is done or configured. Most of us don’t have a photographic memory and I would suggest that you take a photo before you open up anything of how your disposal is hooked. This will be essential if you forget what goes where while putting a new disposal in place. I know you have heard this phrase a picture talks a thousand words, if you take a picture, you will probably understand this phrase.

Thirdly, take with you the information that you took in the picture to your home improvement dealer. If the dealer gets the picture of the configuration of your old disposal, the dealer will give you tips that will help you during replacing of your new garbage disposal, as well as the other things you will need.

Fourth, when you purchase a new garbage disposal you will find that most of them come with instructions. If you will need a special wrench during installation, it will probably be in the packaging. In most cases, a wrench is included to allow you to turn the disposal manually if it is jammed. Don’t keep this in a place out of reach because you might need it in future for repair purposes.

When you have a new disposal, a template of instruction on how to install it by yourself then the rest falls into place easily. To make things simpler always remember the basic home plumbing tips and rules. Plan on what you want to do, ask as many questions as possible, follow the instructions closely and work your plan. Enjoy the fruits of your labor. Good luck.

Avoiding Minor Plumbing Problems

There are a number of reasons why you may need to hire services of a plumber, but most of the time some minor problems can be avoided easily. If you equip yourself with a few plumbing tips you can be in a position to combat common plumbing issues from occurring. This will save you lots of unnecessary hassles and money in the long run.

The following are some plumbing tips that you can use for both inside and outside your home to prevent common problems.

The Basement 

The basement of your home is one of the areas where problems arise. But if you adhere to the following simple plumbing tips you can prevent these issues.

One of the things that you can do is ensure you check your water heater settings frequently to ascertain it is at a maximum. You will reduce energy usage and prevent the instances of too hot water when you shower.

It is also advisable to make sure you pour water regularly if you have drains in your basement. Gases emitted by the sewer can lead to a high concentration of unpleasant smells, but if you pour a lot of water down them, you can prevent this problem.

In addition, for those people who have septic tanks in their basement, it is essential to hire a professional to inspect it and make sure it is pumped at least once every 3 years. If you ignore this, you may be required to change the filter field, which is a bit expensive.

In the Kitchen 

The kitchen is another area that gives rise to the most common plumbing issues, but there are a few plumbing tips to adhere to as well. One of the golden tips for the kitchen is to restrain from disposing of greasy substances down the drain. If you do this you might end up blocking the drain.

The garbage disposal is another area that poses common problems in the kitchen and you are advised to avoid disposing of wrong types of food stuff down it, including sinewy and stringy foods. Also, you are advised to run hot water before using it to unblock stubborn oily substances and flush down the waste. If you have a buildup of garbage disposal that starts to smell, you can pour some detergent and rinse it while it is running with hot water for about a minute.

In the Bathroom 

Be cautious of what goes down your toilet in the bathroom. Make sure nothing else goes down except toilet paper. When you notice your bathroom faucets are leaking, get someone to fix them because they can cause serious water wastage and cause more expensive problems in future.

Outside the Home 

Ensure you clean any leaves or debris from your drains and gutters on a regular basis. For instance, you find a buildup of such materials in vent pipes can give rise to serious problems. Also, regularly check for stagnant water in your home yard as this might be an indicator of a leaking pipe, and if notice them ensure they are fixed as soon as possible.

To wrap up the loose ends, it is worth to mention that the above plumbing tips for inside and outside your home can help to prevent common issues which might need a professional to solve them. So, keep your home safe and avoid the common plumbing problems by adhering to the above tips.

Home Plumbing Tips

There are several times when your faucets leak, your bathroom overflows or sometimes when your kitchen sink becomes clogged. In such cases, most of us simply move our face in dismay or look for a miracle. If this has happened to you as well, it is high time for you to follow a few useful home plumbing tips so that you understand the ways to handle the emergency plumbing issue. 

Having known few tips on plumbing and following those at times of emergency can be of great help to you. Here are few simple yet helpful; tips on home plumbing that come handy to you at times of emergency. 

General tips on plumbing 

  • Getting ready– Do not lose time while waiting for trouble to happen. You may at times go and check the primary water supply switch and also check the drains if they are dirty. If you do not check at regular intervals and clean them, there are increased chances of the drains being clogged. 
  • Do not panic at times of plumbing emergency– Panicking at times of plumbing emergency will do no good. Thus, it is suggested to stay calm at times of plumbing trouble and find out the issue so that you can fix them. 
  • Understanding the plumbing system in your home or office– Share your general plumbing knowledge with your whole family. Also, locate the primary water source and then shut off the valves if there is a massive leakage. 
  • Ensure to keep at least 3 plumbers’ contacts ready– Even in case you repair the minor difficulties, it is always suggested to keep contacts of multiple plumbers ready. In case one plumber is not available, you may approach the other plumbers to come and attend your plumbing emergency. Always put this data near your telephone or save those contacts in your cell phone. This would ensure that you can find them very easily at times of emergency. 
  • Both maintenance and great protective measures are necessary– You can practice protective plumbing measures like pouring boiling water down the drains that draw grease and clear the debris. This will protect the drains from the clogs. 

Handling few common plumbing problems all by yourself 

Clogged drain– You may use a plunger to clear the clogging of the drains. In case it fails to work, then you may opt to use a plumber’s snake for the purpose. You may also utilize certain drain cleaners which contain powerful chemicals and can clear off the drains very effectively. 

Overflowing toilet– There are several times when the toilets overflow due to overuse and clogging of the drains. The overflowing of the drains is also due to the float rising at a higher level. You may replace the necessary parts all by yourself in order to do away with this problem. 

Struck faucets– This is a common plumbing problem and can be very easily resolved by removing the mineral deposits which are struck inside the faucet. You may very conveniently use FSA-approved silicon grease in order to smoothen the sink. It is never advised to apply petroleum jelly in such cases. 

Tips to Help You Find Emergency Plumbing Service!

Plumbing emergencies can occur at any time. One never identifies when they may face poor water flow, a blocked drain, leaky pipes, dripping faucets and so on.

24/7 Plumbing Help

The aforementioned plumbing problem will require quick attention, so it is very important to find a plumbing company that can provide emergency services. If you think that having an emergency plumbing company on your speed dial is a complete waste of time, you will not want to find yourself ankle deep in water when a pipe in your basement breaks at 1:00 am in morning and not know who to call or what to do.

Here are a couple of tips to find the right plumbing company for all your emergency plumbing needs.

Leverage Technology

Thanks to modern technology, you can use the internet to search for virtually any type of information you need. You will not only preserve time but also save a lot of energy as well. With the internet, you can quickly compare the different plumbing services provided by plumbing companies within your area. You can find out whether they offer quick response, which is essential in any emergency situation.

For instance, if you reside in Croydon, you can check out the profiles of good Croydon plumbing companies on their websites. Some even offer you the opportunity to book their service online in order to get a quick response. It makes great sense to choose an emergency plumbing company that has been in business for years and not one that does not even have enough information on their website.

Also choose a plumbing service that is available even during the holidays, because plumbing accidents do not take vacations.

Quality over Speed

Yes, it is vital to choose a plumbing service that only provides quality service and uses modern technology to handle plumbing problems such as a blocked drain. Blocked drains are not only smelly but very inconvenient as well. It makes absolutely no sense to opt for a well-seasoned plumbing service provider that specializes in emergency services.

There are a variety of plumbing companies that claim to provide 24-hour service but will NEVER provide clients with personal assistance when they call for help. There are even some plumbing companies that use machines to answer the phone calls of customers – how horrible! Who wants to be answered by a machine during an emergency?! So, in your best interest, you will need to search for an emergency plumbing company that provides a direct response.

Lastly, it’s essential that you work with a plumbing company that is licensed because a licensed and well-experienced company will provide you with top quality service always!

You need to understand that plumbing is among the hardest jobs to do well, and dealing with emergency plumbing situations will require considerable skill and expertise. A licensed plumber will have the proper equipment and demonstrate credibility.

With the telephone number of an experienced emergency plumber on your speed dial, you can relax, knowing that you can call for help if there is a plumbing crisis at any time of the day or night.